In an attempt to address the Sustainable Development Goal,
the initiative of the Government of India, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), aims to
free India from open defecation by 2018. This point of view analyzes the
consequences of SBM from the perspective of women and water in the context of
bathrooms. With the construction of toilets for 2.4 million people, it is
expected that women’s vulnerability will worsen as available water is scarce.
The point of view concludes that the construction of toilets as objective is
difficult to achieve and maintain without a green technology design that
overcomes the limitations of water and women.
Although access to water and sanitation are known as
integrated elements of national development, the most valuable public health
intervention and the fundamental need of the human being remain a major concern
in India and also in many other developing countries. In 2000, India signed the
United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which include 8 goals, 21
objectives and 60 indicators that came to an end in December 2015. The goal of
MDG 7 was to reduce the proportion by half. of population without access to
potable water and basic sanitation. Which can play an important role in
achieving the objective of MDG-4, that is; reduce the infant mortality rate.
But India has achieved “moderate progress” and failed to do so in
comparison with its neighboring countries, such as China, Bangladesh, Pakistan
and Sri Lanka, which have made good progress (UNICEF and WHO, 2015). Between
1990 and 2015 more than 35 percent of the population of neighboring countries
gained access to adequate sanitation services and the rate of open defecation
decreased dramatically, while only 28 percent of the population gained access
to sanitation services and the rate of open defecation remains significant. Other
countries In India, access to improved sanitation services is greater in urban
areas than in marginal urban and rural areas. 96% and 82% of the world’s urban
population have access to safe clean water and improved sanitation facilities.
The rural population has 82% and 51%, while in India according to 2015 data,
still 44% of the population defecates openly and 10% belongs to urban areas. 61
and 67 percent belong to marginal rural and urban areas, respectively.
Urban areas have not been able to meet the demands of this growing demographic
pressure, which has led to large gaps in the supply of basic services such as
water and sanitation facilities. Access to basic sanitation, drinking water and
health in the urban slum is significantly worse than the rest of the urban
population and is often comparable to health conditions in rural areas. Despite
the fact that several national and international programs were launched over
time to increase sanitation coverage, but India’s rural and urban slums show
slow and irregular progress and there is still a long way to go travel.
India needs to close gaps in access to sanitation between
urban, rural, urban, rich and poor neighborhoods. The MDGs did not focus much
on sustainable development, sustainability challenges and the innovation
system; so that a new set of “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”
transformers, as well as the “Swatch Bharat Mission” adopted by
India, intend to make a “clean India”.